To assure there will be active and equal participation where everyone has the chance to participate, the students can play roles in a group. Any number of roles in any combination can be used for a wide variety of activities, depending on the size of the group and the task being done. These are some of the roles:
♦ SUPERVISOR: Monitors the team members and how they understand the subject to be discussed, and stops the work when a team member needs clarification. This person asks, "Does everyone agree?", "Is this the right answer?", "Are you saying we shouldn't continue with the project?", "Are we differentiating between these two categories?" and "Do you have anything to add?"
♦ DEVIL'S ADVOCATE: Questions the ideas and conclusions, offering alternatives. For example, he says, "Are you sure that subject is important?", "Do you think it will really work?"
♦ MOTIVATOR: Makes sure everyone has the chance to participate in the team's work and praises members for their contributions. This student says, "We didn't know anything about you", "Thanks for your help", "That's an excellent answer", "Can we ask for a different opinion?"
♦ MATERIALS ADMINISTRATOR: Provides and organizes the material that's necessary for homework and projects. This student says, "Does anyone need a projector for our next meeting?", "Pens are next to the table, in case you need them".
♦ OBSERVER: Monitors and records the group's behavior based on the list of behaviors they previously wrote. This student makes observations about the group's behavior and says, "I noticed there's less tension now" and "This seems like a great subject we can use for research, can we add it to the agenda for our next meeting?"
♦ SECRETARY: Takes notes during group discussions and prepares a presentation for the whole class. This student says, "Should we present this?", "I'll read this again to make sure this is right".
♦ REPORTER: Summarizes the information and presents it to the whole class. This student says, "I'll present what we've worked on" and "This is what we have accomplished so far".
♦ TIME MONITOR: Monitors the group's progress and efficiency. He says, "Let's go back to the subject", "I think we should move to the next item", "We have three minutes to finish this" and "We're on time".